Prostitution is legal in both countries. And according to HYDRA, a Berlin-based organization that provides legal advice and other aid to prostitutes, up to three quarters of men in Germany, which also has legalized prostitution, have paid for sexual services.
Meanwhile other estimates for Germany put the proportion far lower, at about one fifth. In Thailand, where prostitution is illegal but socially accepted, one study suggested that a whopping 95 percent of men have slept with a prostitute. Whatever the numbers, the behavior is prevalent enough that psychologists cannot easily write it off as pathological.
Rather men's motives for buying sex are hotly contested among researchers. Some believe the practice serves as a salve for common psychological afflictions, such as an unfulfilled appetite for sex, love or romance. Others paint a dimmer portrait of johns, believing they are typically driven by chauvinistic motives, such as a desire to dominate and control women.
A similar debate rages among experts about the morality of prostitution itself [ see box on page 63 ]. Of course, the simplest explanation for men buying sex is that they like it. After all, people are generally willing to pay for activities they enjoy as much as they do sex. On the other hand, a man can usually get sex for free in the context of an ordinary intimate relationship. So why pay good money for it, especially given the social and health risks of having sex with a prostitute?
Are all johns so unappealing that they cannot get sex any other way? Most researchers do not think so. Johns come from all socioeconomic classes, according to culture researcher Sabine Grenz of the University of Gothenburg in Sweden.
They may be stockbrokers, truck drivers, teachers, priests or law-enforcement officials. Many are married with children. Nor are these men defined by obvious personality problems. In a survey published in psychologist Dieter Kleiber of the Free University of Berlin had some johns fill out the Freiburg Personality Inventory and found no particular abnormalities.
The only correlations he found applied to risk taking and unprotected sex. For example, the men who demanded sex without condoms tended to score higher on aggression, and married and well-to-do customers practiced unprotected sex more frequently than others did.
The research underscores the diversity of the men who pay for sex. Accordingly, these individuals seek prostitutes for varied reasons. Some of them may indeed be driven purely by sexual impulse.
In a study of johns sponsored by the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, sociologist Udo Gerheim of the University of Bremen, Germany, found that many of these men are either sexually frustrated because they are not getting satisfying sex elsewhere or hedonists who want to live out their erotic fantasies in a red-light setting.
Many men feel freer to experiment within the context of commercial sex than with their wives or girlfriends, enabling them to expand their sexual range and to experience greater sexual fulfillment. Yet some researchers have identified emotional and psychological motivations among the men who purchase sex.
Gerheim spotted a type of romantic john who imagines that he is having a genuine relationship with a prostitute based on mutual trust. Kleiber also saw a romantic streak in many of his interviewees.
These men, Kleiber explains, seem to be pursuing the ideal of love in a fee-for-service setting. They portray these relationships as intimate despite their commercial nature and limited scope, he adds. The behavior of male customers during their encounters with prostitutes also may suggest that they seek a social connection outside of coitus.
According to Kleiber's study, more than two thirds of devotees used the services of a particular prostitute more than 50 times. One in four had sex with the same prostitute more than times. But why would a man turn to a prostitute—as opposed to a girlfriend, wife or other consensual female lover—to satisfy his need for a social bond? One reason may be that real relationships with women are risky and complicated, features that men do not always want and cannot always handle.
Prostitutes are far less exacting than girlfriends and wives and may even be soothing to the psyche. That is, an ordinary female date might reject a man or happen to be tired, distant or not in the mood. Arrest and prosecution are purely gestures…to keep up the facade of public morality. It is only the female prostitute who is labelled by the police as a Common Prostitute.
It appears the police can treat women in prostitution differently from other women and can be unsympathetic when a woman in prostitution has a crime committed against her.
Hence, when she was raped by a client, she did not consider reporting it to the police. Seventy per cent of women in prostitution have suffered multiple rapes, and most do not report rape or any other crimes committed against them to the police. It should be recognised that a prostitute engages in deviant behaviour and although all criminal behaviour is deviant not all deviant behaviour is criminal. The prostitute is not a criminal within all societies; however, she is usually considered a non-conformist and a deviant in most.
There are many theories of crime and deviance, few theories that relate to females who engage in such activities and no credible theories of prostitution. Sociologists and psychologists have tended to ignore the female criminal or sexualised her as the field has been dominated by men. Psychological and biological causes for criminal behaviour date back to the late nineteenth century.
Lombroso thought he had discovered that women were not as far evolved as men, and as such, had less capacity to deviate. Freud, the founding father of psychoanalysis, believed that female crime was related to penis-envy. However, if penis is replaced with power, which more men than women possess within society, this theory could be applied to prostitution.
It is unlikely that it can account for all prostitution, but some women say they feel in control and have more power from working in prostitution. Hans Eysenck , a psychometric personality theorist, carried out research which led him to believe that criminals were more likely to have a neurotic extrovert personality.
He also found that unmarried mothers were more prone, than other women, to be extroverts, therefore were more inclined to engage in criminal activities. Another organic cause of crime, and the basis on which many women are relieved of responsibility for their criminal acts, is pre-menstrual tension. This theory cannot be applied to prostitution, as there will be few, if any, women who only work as prostitutes when they are in a pre-menstrual state.
Other psychogenic explanations of crime relate to mental pathology. What leads a woman to make this decision might be discovered by looking at prostitution in a social, rather than a purely psychological context, because prostitution takes place within society by members of society. Social control theory can be used to examine both female participation in criminal activities as well as their absence.
Feminist sociologists, including Heindensohn, attest that females are subject to more social control than males. One main reason for this is to avoid damaging her reputation, which is based on her sexuality and determined by males. Therefore, parental control and guidance is less likely to be prevalent or if forthcoming, it is certainly less likely to be heeded particularly after the abuse has stopped and independence gained.
Another theory that can be used to examine what steers some women away from prostitution and what encourages others to become involved is labeling theory. This theory stresses that the label given to criminals encourages them to become increasingly involved in criminal behaviour. If this is applied to prostitution it can be seen that from suffering abuse and being viewed and treated by the abuser as a sex object could encourage the victim to behave as such. The power of labeling can also stop women becoming involved in prostitution.
Many women experience the label of a good and pure woman, the Madonna. Hence, they feel unable to take on the opposing role, the Magdalene.
However, this theory can not explain why the friends of women in the life do not work as prostitutes. However, this can be accounted for if both differential association and labeling theory are applied concurrently. This theory should not be applied to prostitution. From the research undertaken it is evident, with the exception of those women forced into prostitution, most women choose prostitution because it a means to make more money in a short time rather than the fact they are unable to do anything else.
Other means may be available, but none that match the financial rewards or the flexibility of prostitution — this is especially true for single mothers, women suffering with mental illnesses, and those with drug addiction issues.
In addition, once a woman has a criminal record for prostitution, it makes securing another job extremely difficult. However, radical feminists would argue that the top jobs in industry area taken by men and that women do not have the opportunity to achieve such. However, they are only serving the sexual need of the male and by doing so they are benefiting themselves financially.
Therefore, this could also be interpreted as females exploiting men financially through their sexual needs, by making themselves sexually available to them for a price. Transactional Analysis, a branch of radical psychiatry, examines how people follow life scripts determined from birth. Unconsciously, parents want their children to be either winners or losers, and in different ways they try to encourage this in the child, often with the opposite effect.
The script is based on the parents expectations of their child, and how the child interprets the treatment they receive from their parents. By this, Eric Berne, an American psychiatrist and the creator of Transactional Analysis, infers that when the child is grown up, they have the choice to change their script through script analysis — questioning and testing. This theory is similar to that of psychologist, Kelly, who takes a phenomenological approach.
It has been established that most women in prostitution have suffered childhood sexual and physical abuse. The way in which the childhood abuse, and other circumstances and events, which are all part of a life-script, are interpreted, tested and handled by an individual will determine their behaviour.
The prostitution business is unique in many ways. It is a business in which a woman can earn a substantial amount of money in a reasonably short period of time, and it is a business in which females earn more than their male counterparts. It is clear from the research undertaken, that most women who work as prostitutes have suffered childhood sexual and physical abuse.
Financial reasons are the primary motivation for working in prostitution, whether that be to support a drug habit, provide for their children, clear a debt, or pay for their education.
It is evident that working as a prostitute can have a detrimental effect psychologically. It negatively affects relationships with men. It can make relationships with family strained, and within wider society, women in prostitution can feel separate and isolated. This pagan ideology does not fit into a patriarchal society. Most societies within the world, including the British, have adopted a double standard toward sex, which is enforced on its members with the furtherance of laws, which persecute the prostitute and accommodate the client.
Yet prostitution, within society, is a form of deviant behaviour for both the purveyor and the purchaser of sex. Prostitution is a business, and as such, there has to be sufficient demand for the business to exist. This demand is created by a significant number of the male members of society, many of whom outwardly condemn the supply of prostitutes, whilst in private indulge in the very same.
Clinical Aspects of Juvenile Prostitution. Los Angeles, CA National Center for the Prevention and Control of Rape. National Institute for Mental Health Introduction In , I undertook a dissertation on prostitution examining psychological and social issues and theories of crime.
The Business of Prostitution Prostitution dates back to ancient times. Women Who Work as Prostitutes A common marker that drives women into prostitution is money... Participant 41 A number of other women reported that condom use was a way in which they separated sex at work with sex at home. The majority of women reported that being honest with their partners about their work had impacted negatively on their relationship rather than positively. Due to the way many people view women in prostitution, some do not tell their non-working friends of their working life. Do Intervention Programs Help? I see them grow and become more confident. All 55 participants had been in a relationship at some point in their lives.
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|High end escorts sex psychology||So, casual sexual escorts cheap Brisbane example, some high-end sex workers consider themselves healers and actually enjoy many aspects of their jobs. Some sex purchasers may even have a social agenda to go along with their personal predilections. Yet her confident, pro-women, sexually open stance will undoubtedly give many young escorts a belief in their value and hope for what they can achieve in a notoriously exploitative industry. It can make relationships with family strained, and within wider society, women in prostitution can feel separate and isolated. Due to the scarcity of firsthand accounts, high end escorts sex psychology, my research used accounts from women in prostitution between the s to the s. Participants To be eligible for the study women had to be over the age of 18, have a good understanding of English, and work in a licensed brothel, massage parlour or as a private escort in Victoria, Australia. Or want to read other people's hookup experiences?|